After the attack on the Medici family concluded with Lorenzo’s escape, the town revolted against the archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviati, who was one of those was had attacked Florence, and lynched him on the street. Above all, he was a founder or restorer of important institutions and a patron of arts and letters. Omissions? Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. An assassination attempt on Pope Sixtus IV led to the excommunication of the House of Medici from the Catholic Church and the declaration of holy war on the city of Florence in 1478. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Federico da Montefeltro, the popular Duke of Urbino, was the author of the secret letter. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. For three centuries, the Medici family, known by this logo, was one of the most powerful in Italy. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna. Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which held that papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. [7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. Vol. Cosimo de’ Medici and Pope Sixtus IV… adoring the Infant Saviour. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. The first episode of Season 3 of 'Medici' begins with the Pope excommunicating Florence and its citizens until Lorenzo goes to him and apologizes for the death of Salviati. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) de’ Medici. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. 25 Jul. None of them actually states how he died. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. The Catholic Encyclopedia. The Medici were also at the forefront of banking innovation, which helped raise their profile among the rich of Europe. Apart from meddling in feuds between the great Roman families, Sixtus IV committed himself rather scandalously to Venice’s aggression against the duchy of Ferrara, which he incited the Venetians to attack (1482); their combined assault was opposed by Milan, Florence, and Naples. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. "Pope Sixtus IV." Although Sixtus endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination. Guiliano was killed and Lorenzo was injured. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. The new pope Sixtus IV appoints a Pazzi kinsman archbishop of Pisa, with jurisdiction over Firenze, so the Medici plot to lock him out. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace to his great annoyance. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. 7. He spent huge sums amassing a collection of art and antiquities, and built the magnificent Palazzo di Venezia in Rome. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Among the painters Lorenzo sponsored was Bottecilli. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IV’s nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. The Vatican has its plans for the Medici family, however, seeing as Pope Sixtus IV was one of the people behind the scenes during the Pazzi conspiracy. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, made like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471–1484) Sixtus IV by Titian, c. 1545 (Credit: Uffizi Gallery). Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. Pope Paul II (r. 1464–1471) The pontificate of Paul II was marked by pageantry, carnivals and colourful races. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. The conspirators had included Pope Sixtus IV in their plot as he had an ongoing, years-long rivalry wit… Created by Nicholas Meyer, Frank Spotnitz. Medici (TV Series 2016–2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Maria del Popolo and Sta. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina. For those watching our recommended Medici documentary, Part II covers Lorenzo’s story. He formally annulled (1478) the decrees of the Council of Constance and condemned (1482) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a leading role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469, when he was 20. ... Sixtus I Saint Sixtus Xystus Primus Rome or Greece 125 to 136/138 Telesphorus Saint Telesphorus ... Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Italy 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572 Pius V, O.P. During his pontificate Rome was transformed from a medieval to a Renaissance city. 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All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. The pope was cognizant of the plot, though probably not of the intention to assassinate, and even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici. He now entered upon a two years' war with Florence, and encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for his nephew Girolamo Riario. Cosimo de Medici finds himself at the helm of his … They were one of the first banks to implement double-entry bookkeeping and — thanks to the size of their banking network — they could issue credit across the continent at a time when money lending was a sin. Like all of the ruling families of the Italian Renaissance and throughout history, the Medici were not without their own frequent drama and intrigue. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. The Medici weren't the only famous family of the Italian Renaisssance. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. Updates? [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus IV instituted for the Roman Church the feast (December 8) of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Posts about pope sixtus IV written by S. On 26th April 1478 the ruler of Florence Lorenzo de Medici made his way through his city to the grand Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore – more commonly known as The Duomo thanks to the great dome that topped the imposing structure. Italy at the time was a collection of city-states, republics and principalities, and therefore establishing unique identity was integral. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. [23] Pope Sixtus IV was the 212th Pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars. A pope who wanted reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 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